Probióticos en la avicultura: una revisión

  • Elvis Alexander Díaz-López Universidad de Caldas, Manizales
  • Jaime Ángel-Isaza Universidad de Caldas, Manizales
  • Daniela Ángel B. Universidad de Caldas, Manizales
Palabras clave: aves, gastrointestinal, lactobacilos, microbiota, producción.

Resumen

Los probióticos y prebióticos actualmente se postulan como una alternativa potencial de reemplazo a los antibióticos utilizados como subterapéuticos, a modo de promotores de crecimiento. Su ventaja es que no dejan residuos en el huevo ni en la carne del ave, y no generan riesgo de resistencia antibiótica en la microbiota humana. El uso de los microorganismos probióticos, principalmente bacterias productoras de ácido láctico en la alimentación de las aves, contribuye al mantenimiento de la integridad y estabilidad de la flora intestinal. Esto dificulta la proliferación de microorganismos perjudiciales, lo cual ayuda a prevenir la aparición de enfermedades y a mejorar el rendimiento productivo. Sin embargo, en cuanto a su efecto como promotor de crecimiento, los resultados son contradictorios, en gran medida debido a la variedad de microorganismos y dosis que se pueden suministrar, al tipo de aves utilizadas, a los métodos de administración, a la composición de las dietas de alimentación de las aves y a las condiciones ambientales en que se realizan los bioensayos. Por lo tanto, y debido a la necesidad de prescindir de los antibióticos como promotores de crecimiento, es indispensable continuar investigando y ampliando el conocimiento de estos aditivos, mediante la realización de bioensayos que permitan determinar las cepas bacterianas y los métodos de administración más idóneos en los linajes de aves modernas bajo producción intensiva. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar un análisis de las condiciones en las que estas sustancias actúan, y explicar por qué a veces sus efectos son insignificantes.

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Biografía del autor

Elvis Alexander Díaz-López, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales

Médico veterinario zootecnista. Esp. MSc. Miembro del Grupo de investigación en Nutrición, Metabolismo y Seguridad Alimentaria, Departamento de Producción Agropecuaria, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia.

Jaime Ángel-Isaza, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales

Médico veterinario zootecnista. Candidato a MSc. Miembro del
grupo de investigación en Nutrición, Metabolismo y Seguridad
Alimentaria, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia.

Daniela Ángel B., Universidad de Caldas, Manizales

Médica veterinaria zootecnista, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales,
Colombia.

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Cómo citar
Díaz-López, E., Ángel-Isaza, J., & Ángel B., D. (2017, septiembre 3). Probióticos en la avicultura: una revisión. Revista De Medicina Veterinaria, (35), 175-189. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.19052/mv.4400
Publicado
2017-09-03
Sección
Artículos